Gartner a identifié les 10 technologies que les entreprises ne peuvent pas ignorer à partir de l'année prochaine, et au cours des trois prochaines années. Cette étude a été présentée lors du Gartner SymposiumITxpo 2014 qui s'est tenue du 5 au 9 octobre à Orlando.
- L'informatique mobile. La prolifération constante des terminaux mobiles (tablettes, PC portables, smartphones) devrait continuer à doper la demande émanant des utilisateurs professionnels.
- L'internet des objets.
- L'impression 3D. Les ventes d'imprimantes 3D devraient, en effet, progresser de 98% l'an prochain et de nouvelles applications devraient apparaître dans les secteurs industriel, biomédical et grand public.
- L'analytics. Pour Gartner, les entreprises doivent impérativement mettre en place des filtres et des solutions permettant d'analyser les nombreux flux de données qu'elles agrègrent et de fournir la bonne information à la bonne personne.
- Context-Rich System. L'intelligence embarquée combinée à une solution analytics devraient contribuer au développement de systèmes capables d'interagir avec l'entourage et d'offrir la réponse approprié en cas de sollicitation.
- Smart Machine. Gartner prévoit la prolifération des systèmes et des dispositifs capables de comprendre leur environnement, d'en tenir compte et d'être réellement autonomes.
- Cloud/Client Computing. La convergence du Cloud et de l'informatique mobile continuera de doper le développement d'apps capables d'être fournies sur n'importre quel terminal.
- Software-Defined Applications & Infrastructure.
- Web-Scale IT. De plus en plus d'entreprises devraient commencer à penser et à bâtir des applications et des applications comme les géants du Web comme Facebook, Google et Amazon.
- Risk-Based Security & Self-Protection. Est-il possible de fournir un environnement 100% sécurisé ? Pour Gartner, cela passe par l'intégration de nouveaux modèles de sécurité directement au sein des applications. Les dispositifs de sécurité périmétriques et les pare-feux ne sont pas suffisants. Chaque application doit être auto-protégée.
Ces dix technologies, les entreprises ne devront pas forcément toutes les embrasser de même manière, mais elles devront se positionner clairement vis-à-vis de chacune d'elles au cours des deux ou trois ans à venir, conclut David Cearley, vice president and Gartner Fellow. Voici l'intégrale de son analyse :
The top 10 strategic technology trends for 2015 are :
As mobile devices continue to proliferate, Gartner predicts an increased emphasis on serving the needs of the mobile user in diverse contexts and environments, as opposed to focusing on devices alone.
"Phones and wearable devices are now part of an expanded computing environment that includes such things as consumer electronics and connected screens in the workplace and public space," said Mr Cearley. "Increasingly, it's the overall environment that will need to adapt to the requirements of the mobile user. This will continue to raise significant management challenges for IT organisations as they lose control of user endpoint devices. It will also require increased attention to user experience design."
The Internet of Things
The combination of data streams and services created by digitising everything creates four basic usage models — Manage, Monetise, Operate and Extend. These four basic models can be applied to any of the four "Internets." Organisations should not limit themselves to thinking that only the Internet of Things (IoT) (assets and machines) has the potential to leverage these four models. For example, the pay-per-use model can be applied to assets (such as industrial equipment), services (such as pay-as-you-drive insurance), people (such as movers), places (such as parking spots) and systems (such as cloud services). Businesses from all industries can leverage these four models.
Worldwide shipments of 3D printers are expected to grow 98 per cent in 2015, followed by a doubling of unit shipments in 2016. 3D printing will reach a tipping point over the next three years as the market for relatively low-cost 3D printing devices continues to grow rapidly and industrial use expands significantly. New industrial, biomedical and consumer applications will continue to demonstrate that 3D printing is a real, viable and cost-effective means to reduce costs through improved designs, streamlined prototyping and short-run manufacturing.
Advanced, Pervasive and Invisible Analytics
Analytics will take centre stage as the volume of data generated by embedded systems increases and vast pools of structured and unstructured data inside and outside the organisation are analysed. "Every app now needs to be an analytic app," said Mr Cearley. "Organisations need to manage how best to filter the huge amounts of data coming from the IoT, social media and wearable devices, and then deliver exactly the right information to the right person, at the right time. Analytics will become deeply, but invisibly embedded everywhere." Big data remains an important enabler for this trend but the focus needs to shift to thinking about big questions and big answers first and big data second — the value is in the answers, not the data.
Ubiquitous embedded intelligence combined with pervasive analytics will drive the development of systems that are alert to their surroundings and able to respond appropriately. Context-aware security is an early application of this new capability, but others will emerge. By understanding the context of a user request, applications can not only adjust their security response but also adjust how information is delivered to the user, greatly simplifying an increasingly complex computing world.
Deep analytics applied to an understanding of context provide the preconditions for a world of smart machines. This foundation combines with advanced algorithms that allow systems to understand their environment, learn for themselves, and act autonomously. Prototype autonomous vehicles, advanced robots, virtual personal assistants and smart advisors already exist and will evolve rapidly, ushering in a new age of machine helpers. The smart machine era will be the most disruptive in the history of IT.
The convergence of cloud and mobile computing will continue to promote the growth of centrally coordinated applications that can be delivered to any device. "Cloud is the new style of elastically scalable, self-service computing, and both internal applications and external applications will be built on this new style," said Mr Cearley. "While network and bandwidth costs may continue to favour apps that use the intelligence and storage of the client device effectively, coordination and management will be based in the cloud."
In the near term, the focus for cloud/client will be on synchronising content and application state across multiple devices and addressing application portability across devices. Over time, applications will evolve to support simultaneous use of multiple devices. The second-screen phenomenon today focuses on coordinating television viewing with use of a mobile device. In the future, games and enterprise applications alike will use multiple screens and exploit wearables and other devices to deliver an enhanced experience.
Software-Defined Applications and Infrastructure
Agile programming of everything from applications to basic infrastructure is essential to enable organisations to deliver the flexibility required to make the digital business work. Software-defined networking, storage, data centres and security are maturing. Cloud services are software-configurable through API calls, and applications, too, increasingly have rich APIs to access their function and content programmatically. To deal with the rapidly changing demands of digital business and scale systems up — or down — rapidly, computing has to move away from static to dynamic models. Rules, models and code that can dynamically assemble and configure all of the elements needed from the network through the application are needed.
Web-scale IT is a pattern of global-class computing that delivers the capabilities of large cloud service providers within an enterprise IT setting. More organisations will begin thinking, acting and building applications and infrastructure like web giants such as Amazon, Google and Facebook. Web-scale IT does not happen immediately, but will evolve over time as commercial hardware platforms embrace the new models and cloud-optimised and software-defined approaches reach mainstream. The first step toward the web-scale IT future for many organisations should be DevOps — bringing development and operations together in a coordinated way to drive rapid, continuous incremental development of applications and services.
Risk-Based Security and Self-Protection
All roads to the digital future lead through security. However, in a digital business world, security cannot be a roadblock that stops all progress. Organisations will increasingly recognise that it is not possible to provide a 100 per cent secured environment. Once organisations acknowledge that, they can begin to apply more-sophisticated risk assessment and mitigation tools. On the technical side, recognition that perimeter defence is inadequate and applications need to take a more active role in security gives rise to a new multifaceted approach. Security-aware application design, dynamic and static application security testing, and runtime application self-protection combined with active context-aware and adaptive access controls are all needed in today's dangerous digital world. This will lead to new models of building security directly into applications. Perimeters and firewalls are no longer enough; every app needs to be self-aware and self-protecting.